Protocol Layer

The protocol layer consists of the underlying blockchain consensus mechanism and the nodes that form the foundation of the entire blockchain. This layer may also contain various types of external Layer-2 blockchain systems, such as sidechains and virtual machines. More commonly, the protocol layer refers to the underlying architecture that underpins all Layer-1 blockchain networks. The protocol layer consists of addresses that identify specific nodes, error reporting, interface identification systems, network synchronization and state changes, and network transaction sending, receiving, and processing.